Table of Contents
Do underground mines use explosives?
High explosives are used in a few small underground operations where geologic conditions and drilling characteristics require its use. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability Field Office (MAFO).
What explosives do they use in mines?
Dynamite, a nitroglycerin-based explosive, is rarely used today for blasting at surface mines in Illinois. Blasting agents account for almost 99\% of the explosive materials used. ANFO, ammonium nitrate and fuel oil, is the most common explosive.
What is a mining explosive?
A mine is an explosive placed underground or underwater that explodes when disturbed, or when remotely triggered. Mines, unlike bombs, are placed in situ and then require some other stimulus from a target before they will detonate.
Why do mines use explosives?
The nature of the orebody and mining environment necessitates the use of explosives as a rock-breaking mechanism, thus making explosives an integral part of the mining cycle. Without them, production cannot take place.
How does underground coal mining work?
Underground mining involves opening one or more portals or shafts into the earth that follow or intercept coal seams that are too deep for surface mining methods. As the ‘room’ is mined, large ‘pillars’ of coal are left behind to support the weight of the overburden and rock layers above.
When were mining explosives used?
Subsequent to the introduction of water-gels, new emulsion-type explosives were approved and introduced for use in coal mines in 1981. These explosives were in the form of water-in-oil emulsions and utilized artificial microspheres made from glass or other material for sensitizers.
Do surface and underground mining uses explosives?
Surface mines in the coal and metal/nonmetal sectors rely extensively on explosives to uncover mineral deposits. The mining industry considers blasting an essential component for the success of their operations.
How do mines explode?
Explosions in underground mines and surface processing facilities are caused by accumulations of flammable gas and/or combustible dust mixed with air in the presence of an ignition source.
How do explosions occur in mines?
Coal mine explosions are generally caused by either methane or coal dust. Explosions happen when the methane comes in contact with a heat source. The combustion process causes air inside the mine to expand which can create a shock wave. The most common method to control methane levels in coal mines is ventilation.
What is underground coal mines?
An underground coal mine is a mine at which coal is produced by tunneling into the earth to the coalbed, which is then mined with underground mining equipment such as cutting machines and continuous, longwall, and shortwall mining machines, and transported to the surface.
What is underground mining called?
Underground hard-rock mining refers to various underground mining techniques used to excavate “hard” minerals, usually those containing metals, such as ore containing gold, silver, iron, copper, zinc, nickel, tin, and lead.