How does diabetes affect fetal development?

How does diabetes affect fetal development?

Diabetes that is not well controlled causes the baby’s blood sugar to be high. The baby is “overfed” and grows extra large. Besides causing discomfort to the woman during the last few months of pregnancy, an extra large baby can lead to problems during delivery for both the mother and the baby.

Is gestational diabetes a health threat to the fetus?

If untreated, gestational diabetes can cause problems for your baby, like premature birth and stillbirth. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after you have your baby; but if you have it, you’re more likely to develop diabetes later in life.

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How does diabetes affect the placenta?

Diabetic pregnancies are associated with elevated fetal levels of fibroblast growth factor-2 (37,38), which will stimulate placental angiogenesis and lead to the hypercapillarization seen in placentas of type 1 diabetic pregnancies.

How does gestational diabetes affect the nervous system?

If blood glucose levels remain high for extended periods of time over a number of years, the blood vessels which feed the nerves can become damaged and can lead to the nerves themselves becoming damaged. Damage to the nerves can lead to loss of feeling in extremities such as the hands and lower legs.

What happens to the placenta with gestational diabetes?

When you have gestational diabetes, your pancreas works overtime to produce insulin, but the insulin does not lower your blood glucose levels. Although insulin does not cross the placenta, glucose and other nutrients do. So extra blood glucose goes through the placenta, giving the baby high blood glucose levels.

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Does insulin deteriorate the placenta?

Insulin is directly toxic to early placenta and elevated levels can lead to pregnancy loss, according to new research. Metformin, a low-cost medication for diabetes management, as well as diet modifications in the form of reduced carbohydrates and sugar have shown promise in potentially preventing miscarriage.

Is gestational diabetes a risk factor for autism?

The blood sugar disorder, known as gestational diabetes, was linked to a moderately increased risk for an autism spectrum disorder in a study of more than 320,000 U.S. children, said study researcher Anny Xiang, director of statistical research at Kaiser Permanente Southern California.

How does gestational diabetes affect the risk of a pregnancy?

If you have gestational diabetes, your baby is at higher risk of: Being very large (9 pounds or more), which can make delivery more difficult Being born early, which can cause breathing and other problems Having low blood sugar Developing type 2 diabetes later in life

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Does gestational diabetes go away after giving birth?

Because you had gestational diabetes, you have a greater chance of developing type 2 diabetes. But it won’t definitely happen, and you can take action to prevent that. Your blood sugar levels will likely return to normal about 6 weeks after childbirth.

What are the side effects of gestational diabetes?

Gestational diabetes also can cause health complications for your baby after birth, including breathing problems, low blood sugar and jaundice. Jaundice is a medical condition in which a baby’s eyes and skin look yellow.

What is the best diet for gestational diabetes?

fresh or frozen vegetables,especially ones that are steamed

  • eggs or egg whites
  • steel-cut oatmeal topped with berries
  • fresh fruit
  • skinless chicken breasts
  • baked fish
  • air-popped popcorn
  • unsweetened Greek yogurt