What is giant magnetoresistance sensor?

What is giant magnetoresistance sensor?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) is a quantum mechanical magnetoresistance effect observed in multilayers composed of alternating ferromagnetic and non-magnetic conductive layers. The 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg for the discovery of GMR.

What is magnetoresistance explain?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Magnetoresistance is the tendency of a material (often ferromagnetic) to change the value of its electrical resistance in an externally-applied magnetic field. There are a variety of effects that can be called magnetoresistance.

What is GMR and TMR?

GMR and TMR devices have a basic common structure, namely, two ferromagnetic metal films separated magnetically by a nonmagnetic film. The difference between the structures of these devices is in the nonmagnetic spacer film which consists of a metal film (GMR) or an insulator film (TMR).

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What makes giant magnetoresistance GMR different from the general effect of magnetoresistance?

GMR only allows data to be read and written,magnetoresistance can only be used to read data.

What are spin valves used for?

Applications. Spin valves are used in magnetic sensors and hard disk read heads. They are also used in magnetic random access memories (MRAM).

How is magnetoresistance different to Hall resistance?

Hall voltage/resistance is measured perpendicular to the current applied. Magnetoresistance IS related to a Lorentz force (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetoresistance) but the force itself isn’t the resistance.

What is TMR technology?

Tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) is a magnetoresistive effect that occurs in a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), which is a component consisting of two ferromagnets separated by a thin insulator. Magnetic tunnel junctions are manufactured in thin film technology.

What is magnetostrictive used for?

Applications. Magnetostrictive materials are used to convert electromagnetic energy into mechanical energy and vice versa. This effect can be used to create sensors that measure a magnetic field or detect a force. The magnetic field or force applied would create a strain in the material, which can be measured.

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What is spin injection?

The injection of spin polarized carriers from a ferromagnetic electrode inside semiconductors (spin injection) is one of the hottest topics in the research field of spintronics, because spin injection is the first step towards creating viable semiconductor spintronic devices featuring non-volatile, reconfigurable logic …

What is spin flip scattering?

The spin-flip scattering is strong at low temperatures and actually increases slightly as temperature decreases. This phenomenon is called the Kondo effect after the Japanese theoretical physicist Jun Kondo, who first explained the increase in resistivity resulting from magnetic impurities.

What is the giant magnetoresistance?

The giant magnetoresistance is a quantum mechanical and condensed matter physics phenomenon, a kind of magnetoresistance effect, which can be observed in the thin film layer (several nanometer thick) structure between the magnetic material and the nonmagnetic material.

How much does a magnetic field affect electrical resistance?

Electrical resistance changed by up to 50\% with the external magnetic field at 4.2 K. Fert named the new effect giant magnetoresistance, to highlight its difference with the anisotropic magnetoresistance.

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What is magnetoresistive effect?

The phenomenon that the resistance value of a substance changes under a certain magnetic field, known as the“magnetoresistive effect”. Magnetic metals and alloy materials generally have such a magnetoresistance phenomenon. Generally, the resistivity of a substance only slightly decreases in the magnetic field.

What causes the change in resistance of a magnetic film?

This change in resistance, in general a reduction, is related to the field-induced alignment of the magnetizations of the magnetic layers. In the first experiments, the film was composed of layers of Fe (ferromagnetic) and Cr (nonmagnetic) with typical thicknesses of a few nm and the current was in the plane of the film.